Full list of publications is accessible at Google Scholar

Bioactive Materials
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Advanced Materials
Advanced Materials
Materials Horizons
Biomaterials Science
Advanced Healthcare Materials

Book Chapters

(4) Electrospun and Nanofibrous Membranes Principles and Applications

Co-axial Electrospinning (Chapter 5) (Link)

M. Mostofizadeh, M. L. Pitcher, A. Sheikhi. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Edited by A. Kargari, T. Matsuura, and A. M. Shirazi. 2022

(3) Cellulose Nanoparticles: Chemistry and Fundamentals

Hairy Cellulose Nanocrystals: Chemistry and Fundamentals (Chapter 1) (Link)

J. Muthami, P. Wamea, M. Pitcher, M.N. Sakib, Z. Liu, S. Arora, D. Kennedy, Y.-J. Chang, A. Sheikhi. Royal Society of Chemistry. London. Edited by V.K. Thakur, E. Frollini, and J. Scott. 2021

(2) Cellulose Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Manufacturing

Hairy Cellulose Nanocrystals: From Synthesis to Advanced Applications in the Water-Energy-Health-Food Nexus (Chapter 1) (Link)

J. Muthami, P. Wamea, M. Pitcher, M.N. Sakib, Z. Liu, S. Arora, D. Kennedy, Y.-J. Chang, A. Sheikhi. Royal Society of Chemistry. London. Edited by V.K. Thakur, E. Frollini, and J. Scott. 2021

(1) Nanomaterials and Polymer Nanocomposites Book

Emerging cellulose-based nanomaterials and nanocomposites (Chapter 9) (Link)

A. Sheikhi. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Edited by N. Karak. 2018

Peer-Reviewed Publications

§ equal contribution; * corresponding authorship; ^ Penn State student/postdoc

(68) Journal of Visualized Experiments

Gelatin Methacryloyl Granular Hydrogel Scaffolds: High-throughput Microgel Fabrication, Lyophilization, Chemical Assembly, and 3D Bioprinting (Link)

Z. Ataie,^ A. Jaberi,^ S. Kheirabadi,^ A. Risbud,^ A. Sheikhi*. 190: e64829. 2023

(67) Biomacromolecules

Nanoengineering the redispersibility of cellulose nanocrystals (Link)

B. Huntington,§^ M.L. Pitcher,§^ A. Sheikhi*. 24:43-56. 2023

(66) Cellulose

Relaxation dynamics of water in the vicinity of cellulose nanocrystals (Link)

I. Chae, L. E. Paniagua-Guerra, M. L. Pitcher,^ R. Koshani,^ M. Yuan, Y.-T. Lin, J. Lee, S. E. Perini, A. Sheikhi, B. Ramos-Alvarado, M. T. Lanagan, S. H. Kim*. Accepted. 2023

(65) BioRxiv

Iron Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Migration and Polarization (Link)

G. Shenoy,^ S. Kheirabadi,^ Z. Ataie,^ K. Palsa,^ Q. Wade,^ C. Khunsriraksakul,^ V. Khristov,^ B.-S. Webb,^ J.D. Lathia, H.-G. Wang,^ A. Sheikhi, J. R. Connor*. bioRxiv. 2023

(64) Journal of Colloid and Interface Science

Colloidal aspects of calcium carbonate scaling in water-in-oil emulsions: A fundamental study using droplet-based microfluidics (Link)

S.-L. Yeh,^ R. Koshani,^ A. Sheikhi*. 633:536. 2023

(63) Bioactive Materials

Tissue adhesive hemostatic microneedle arrays for rapid hemorrhage treatment (Link)

R. Haghniaz, H.-J. Kim, H. Montazerian, A. Baidya, M. Tavafoghi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, S. Karamikamkar, A. Sheikhi,* A. Khademhosseini*. 23:314. 2023

(62) Small

Nanoengineered granular hydrogel bioinks with preserved interconnected microporosity for extrusion bioprinting (Link)

Z. Ataie,^ S. Kheirabadi,^ J.W. Zhang,^ A. Kedzierski,^ C. Petrosky,^ R. Jiang,^ C. Vollberg,^ A. Sheikhi*. 18:2202390. 2022

(61) ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

Ion exchange biomaterials to capture daptomycin and prevent resistance evolution in off-target bacterial populations (Link)

S.-L. Yeh,^ N. Narasimhalu,^ L.G. vom Steeg,^ J. Muthami,^ S. LeConey,^ Z. He,^ M. Pitcher,^ H. Cassady,^ V.J. Morley, S.H. Cho, C. Bator, R. Koshani,^ R.J. Woods, M. Hickner, A.F. Read, A. Sheikhi*. 14:42864. 2022

(60) ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

A cohesive shear-thinning biomaterial for catheter-based minimally invasive therapeutics (Link)

A. Baidya, R. Haghniaz, G. Tom, M. Edalati, N. Kaneko, P. Alizadeh, M. Tavafoghi, A. Khademhosseini,* A. Sheikhi*. 14:42852. 2022

(59) Chemical Engineering Journal

Highly functional bio-based micro-and nano-structured materials for neodymium recovery (Link)

M.L. Pitcher,^ B. Huntington,^ J. Dominick,^ A. Sheikhi*. 447:137418. 2022

(58) Advanced Materials

A readily scalable, clinically demonstrated, antibiofouling zwitterionic surface treatment for implantable medical devices (Link)

B. McVerry,§ A. Polasko,§ E. Rao, R. Haghniaz, D. Chen, N. He, P. Ramos, J. Hayashi, P. Curson, C.-Y. Wu, P. Bandaru, M. Anderson, B. Bui, A. Sayegh, S. Mahendra, D. Di Carlo, E. Kreydin, A. Khademhosseini, A. Sheikhi,* R.B. Kaner*. 34:2200254. 2022

(57) Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry

Recent advances and challenges in recycling and reusing biomedical materials (Link)

S. Kheirabadi,^ A. Sheikhi*. 38:100695. 2022

(56) Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials

Assessing the aneurysm occlusion efficacy of a shear-thinning biomaterial in a 3D-printed model (Link)

G. Schroeder, M. Edalati, G. Tom, N. Kuntjoro, M. Gutin, M. Gurian, E. Cuniberto, E. Hirth, A. Martiri, M.T. Sposato, S. Aminzadeh, J. Eichenbaum, P. Alizadeh, A. Baidya, R. Haghniaz, R. Nasiri, N. Kaneko, A. Mansouri, A. Khademhosseini*, A. Sheikhi*. 130:105156. 2022

(55) Materials Today Chemistry

Engineering hairy cellulose nanocrystals for chemotherapy drug capture (Link)

S.A.E. Young, J. Muthami,^ M. Pitcher,^ P. Antovski, P. Wamea, R. D. Murphy, R. Haghniaz, A. Schmidt, S. Clark, A. Khademhosseini, A. Sheikhi*. 23:100711. 2022
Highlighted by Penn State, ScienceDaily,, EurekAlert!, SciTechDaily, News Medical,, Technology Networks, Medgadget, ScienceBlog. 

(54) Chemical Engineering Journal

Nanoengineering cellulose for the selective removal of neodymium: Towards sustainable rare earth element recovery (Link)

P. Wamea,^ M.L. Pitcher,^ J. Muthami,^ A. Sheikhi*. 428:131086. 2022
Received the 2021 Best Paper Award of Penn State Chemical Engineering. 
Highlighted by EurekAlert!,, Penn State, Manufacturing at Semiconductor Engineering,, AZO Nano, Science Blog.

(53) Acta Biomaterialia 

Advances in bioactive glass-containing injectable hydrogel biomaterials for tissue regeneration (Link)

E. Zeimaran, S. Pourshahrestani, A. Fathi, N. Anuar bin Abd Razak, N.A. Kadri, A. Sheikhi, F. Baino. 428:131086. 2021

(52) Nano-micro Letters 

Nanoengineered shear-thinning hydrogel barrier for preventing postoperative adhesions (Link)

G.U. Ruiz-Esparza, X. Wang, S. Jimenez-Vazquez, L. Diaz-Gomez, A.-M. Lavoie, S. Afewerki, A.A. Fuentes-Baldemar, R. Parra-Saldivar, N. Jiang, N. Annabi, B. Saleh, A.K. Yetisen, A. Sheikhi, T.H. Jozefiak, S.-R. Shin, N. Dong, A. Khademhosseini. 13:212. 2021
Highlighted by ScienceDaily, Medical Express, 

(51) Biomaterials Science

Three-dimensionally printable shear-thinning triblock copolypeptide hydrogels with antimicrobial potency (Link)

R. Murphy, S. Kordbacheh, D. Skoulas, S. Ng, K. Suthiwanich, A.M. Kasko, S.-A. Cryan, D. Fitzgerald-Hughes, A. Khademhosseini, A. Sheikhi,* Andreas Heise*. 9:5144. 2021

(50) Advanced Healthcare Materials

In vivo printing of nanoenabled scaffolds for the treatment of skeletal muscle injuries (Link)

J.P. Quint, A. Mostafavi, Y. Endo, A. Panayi, C.S. Russell, A. Nourmahnad, C. Wiseman, L. Abassi, M. Samandari, A. Sheikhi, K. Nuutila, I. Sinha, A. Tamayol. 10:2002152. 2021

(49) Bioengineering & Translational Medicine

In situ forming microporous gelatin methacryloyl hydrogel scaffolds from thermostable microgels for tissue engineering (Link)

N. Zoratto, D. Di Lisa, J. de Rutte, M.N. Sakib,^ A.R.A. e Silva, A. Tamayol, D. Di Carlo, A. Khademhosseini, A. Sheikhi*. 5:e10180. 2020

(48) Biofabrication 

Direct-write 3D printing and characterization of a GelMA-based biomaterial for intracorporeal tissue engineering (Link)

A.A. Adib, A. Sheikhi, A. Khademhosseini, D. Hoelzle. 12:045006. 2020

(47) Advanced Healthcare Materials

Engineering tough, injectable, naturally-derived, bioadhesive composite hydrogels (Link)

M. Tavafoghi,§ A. Sheikhi,* R. Tutar, J. Jahangiry, A. Baidya, R. Haghniaz, A. Khademhosseini*. 9:901722. 2020
Featured in 13 news outlets (e.g., Physicsworld, La Recherche, IEEE Spectrum, The Medical News). In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric.

(46) Biotechnology Journal

Synthesis of injectable shear‐thinning biomaterials of various compositions of gelatin and synthetic silicate nanoplatelet (Link)

C. Xue, H. Xie, J. Eichenbaum, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Floor W. van den Dolder, J. Lee, K.J. Lee, S. Zhang, W. Sun, A. Sheikhi, S. Ahadian, N. Ashammakhi, M.R. Dokmeci, H.‐J. Kim, A. Khademhosseini. 15:1900456. 2020

(45) ACS Nano

3D-printed ultra-robust surface-doped porous silicone sensors for wearable biomonitoring (Link)

E. Davoodi, H. Montazerian, R. Haghniaz, A. Rashidid, S. Ahadian, A. Sheikhi, J. Chen, A. Khademhosseini, A.S. Milani, M. Hoorfar, E. Toyserkani. 14:1520. 2020
Highlighted by ScienceDaily, Nanowerk, Electronic Products.

(44) Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering

Sequential modular simulation of circulating fluidized bed reactors (Link)

H. Jafari, A. Sheikhi,* R. Sotudeh-Gharebagh*. 98:1003. 2020

(43) ACS Applied Polymer Materials

Microengineered emulsion-to-powder (MEtoP) technology for the high-fidelity preservation of molecular, colloidal, and bulk properties of colloidal systems (Link)

A. Sheikhi,* D. Di Lisa, J. de Rutte, O. Akouissi, D. Di Carlo,* A. Khademhosseini*. 1:1935. 2019

(42) MethodsX

Modular microporous hydrogels formed from microgel beads with orthogonal thermo-chemical responsivity: Microfluidic fabrication and characterization (Link)

A. Sheikhi,* J. de Rutte, R. Haghniaz, O. Akouissi, A. Sohrabi, D. Di Carlo,* and A. Khademhosseini*. 6:1747. 2019

(41) Applied Materials Today

Status and future scope of plant-based green hydrogels in biomedical engineering (Link)

R. Mohammadinejad, H. Maleki, E. Larrañeta, A.R. Fajardo, A.B. Nik, A. Shavandi, A. Sheikhi, …, Y.K.Mishra, V.K. Thakur. 16:213. 2019

(40) Nature Scientific Reports

Anti-IL-6 eluting immunomodulatory biomaterials prolong skin allograft survival (Link)

M. Uehara, X. Li, A. Sheikhi, N. Zandi, B. Walker, B. Saleh, N. Banouni, L. Jiang, F. Ordikhani, L. Dai, M. Yonar, I. Vohra, V. Kasinath, D.P. Orgill, A. Khademhosseini, N. Annabi, R. Abdi. 9:6535. 2019

(39) Biomaterials 

Microfluidic-enabled bottom-up hydrogels from annealable naturally-derived protein microbeads (Link)

A. Sheikhi, J. de Rutte, R. Haghniaz, O. Akouissi, A. Sohrabi, D. Di Carlo, and A. Khademhosseini. 192:560. 2019

(38) Advanced Healthcare Materials

Advancing frontiers in bone bioprinting (Link)

N. Ashammakhi, O. Kaarela, A. Hasan, B. Byambaa, A. Sheikhi, A.K. Gaharwar, A. Khademhosseini. 8:1801048. 2019. Featured on the cover.

(37) Journal of Controlled Release 

Recent advances in nanoengineering cellulose for cargo delivery (Link)

A. Sheikhi, J. Hayashi, J. Eichenbaum, M. Gutin, N. Kuntjoro, D. Khorsandi, and A. Khademhosseini. 294:53. 2019.

(36) Science Advances 

Sutureless sealing and repair of corneal injuries using naturally derived bioadhesive hydrogels (Link)

E.S. Sani, A. Kheirkhah, D. Rana, Z. Sun, W. Foulsham, A. Sheikhi, A. Khademhosseini, R. Dana, N. Annabi. 5:eaav1281. 2019.
Highlighted by ScienceDaily, Medical Xpress, EurekAlert! (American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS), Eye World, Optik Now, Physics World, Visionmonday, Innovation Toronto. 

(35) Journal of Materials Chemistry A 

Rational design of molecularly engineered biomimetic threshold scale inhibitors (Link)

A. Sheikhi,* N. Li, S. Mejlsøe, T.G.M. van de Ven,* and A. Kakkar*. 6:24058. 2018.

(34) Advanced Materials

Minimally invasive and regenerative therapeutics (Link)

N. Ashammakhi, S. Ahadian, M.A. Darabi, M. El Tahchi, J. Lee, K. Suthiwanich, A. Sheikhi, M.R. Dokmeci, R. Oklu, A. Khademhosseini. 31:1804041. 2018. Featured on the cover.
Advanced Materials Hall of Fame. 

(33) Bioengineering & Translational Medicine 

Polysaccharide Composite Scaffolds for 3D Cell Culture and Tissue Engineering: towards Natural Therapeutics (Link)

S. Afewerki,§ A. Sheikhi,§ S. Kannan, S. Ahadian, and A. Khademhosseini. 4:96. 2018.

(32) Biomaterials Science  

Effect of ionic strength on shear-thinning nanoclay-polymer composite hydrogels (Link)

A. Sheikhi,§ S. Afewerki,§ R. Oklu, A.K. Gaharwar, and A. Khademhosseini. 6:2073. 2018Featured on the cover.

(31) ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces   

Overcoming inorganic scaling using engineered nanocelluloses: A QCM-D study (Link)

A. Sheikhi,* A.L.J. Olsson, N. Tufenkji, A. Kakkar, and T.G.M. van de Ven*. 10:34553. 2018
Highlighted by PHYS.ORG, ScienceDaily, EurekAlert! (American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS), eScience News, NANO Magazine, Technology Breaking News,, Nanowerk, Technology-Nano,, TMR Blog, McGill Newsroom, Genesis Nanotech, Science and Technology Research News, Techno‐, Industrial WaterWorld, Vaaju, Water Technology magazine, and R&D magazine. 

(30) Materials Chemistry Frontiers    

Biomimetic dendrimers for mineralization: Rare fibrous amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and branch-and-bud ACC-vaterite polymorphs (Link)

A. Sheikhi,* S.L. Mejlsøe, N. Li, E. Bomal, T.G.M. van de Ven,* and A. Kakkar*. 2:2081. 2018

(29) Journal of Materials Chemistry A     

Biomimetic scale-resistant polymer nanocomposites: Towards universal additive-free scale inhibition (Link)

A. Sheikhi,* A. Kakkar, and T.G.M. van de Ven*. 6:10189. 2018

(28) Materials Horizons      

Nanoengineering colloidal and polymeric celluloses for threshold scale inhibition: towards universal biomass-based crystal modification (Link)

A. Sheikhi,* A. Kakkar, and T.G.M. van de Ven*. 5:248. 2018. Featured on the cover.
Highlighted by PHYS.ORG, ScienceDaily, EurekAlert! (American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS), eScience News, NANO Magazine, Technology Breaking News,, Nanowerk, Technology-Nano,, TMR Blog, McGill Newsroom, Genesis Nanotech, Science and Technology Research News, Techno‐, Industrial WaterWorld, Vaaju, Water Technology magazine, and R&D magazine.

(27) ACS Applied Nano Materials 

Colloidal starch and cellulose nanocrystals unite to improve the mechanical properties of paper: From enhanced coatings to reinforced nanocomposites (Link)

A. Sheikhi* and T.G.M. van de Ven*. 1:1841. 2018.

(26) Materials Horizons  

Colloidal nanotoolbox for molecularly regulated polymerization: chemorheology over 6 decades of viscoelasticity (Link)

A. Sheikhi,* H. Yang, P.J. Carreau, and T.G.M. van de Ven*. 4:1165. 2017.

(25) Chemical Communications   

Squishy nanotraps: hybrid cellulose nanocrystal-zirconium metallogels for controlled trapping of biomacromolecules (Link)

A. Sheikhi* and T.G.M. van de Ven*. 53:8747. 2017.

(24) Molecules 

Design and synthesis of dendrimers with facile surface group functionalization, and an evaluation of their bactericidal efficacy (Link)

E. Ladd, A. Sheikhi, N. Li, T.G.M. van de Ven, and A. Kakkar. 22:868. 2017.

(23) Biomaterials 

Structural analysis of photocrosslinkable methacryloyl-modified protein derivatives (Link)

K. Yue, X. Li, K. Schrobback, A. Sheikhi, N. Annabi, J. Leijten, W. Zhang, Y.S. Zhang, D.W. Hutmacher, T.J. Klein, A. Khademhosseini. 139:163. 2017.

(22) Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface 

Colloidal aspects of Janus-like hairy cellulose nanocrystalloids (Link)

A. Sheikhi* and T.G.M. van de Ven*. 29:21. 2017Invited Review Article to the Special Issue on Nanocelluloses.

(21) Langmuir  

Reusable green aerogels from crosslinked hairy nanocrystalline cellulose and modified chitosan for dye removal (Link)

H. Yang, A. Sheikhi, and T.G.M. van de Ven. 32:11771. 2016

(20) ACS Macro Letters   

Trapping it softly: ultrasoft zirconium metallogels for macromolecule entrapment and reconfiguration (Link)

A. Sheikhi* and T.G.M. van de Ven*. 5:904908. 2016

(19) Soft Matter    

Hydrogel-colloid interfacial interactions: a study of tailored adhesion using optical tweezers (Link)

A. Sheikhi and R.J. Hill. 12:6575. 2016

(18) Crystal Growth & Design     

A leaf out of Nature’s book: hairy nanocelluloses for bioinspired mineralization (Link)

A. Sheikhi, A. Kakkar, and T.G.M. van de Ven. 16:46274634. 2016

(17) Nanoscale      

Hairy cellulose nanocrystalloids: A novel class of nanocellulose (Link)

T.G.M. van de Ven and A. Sheikhi. 8:15101. 2016. Invited Feature Article. Featured on the cover.

(16) Journal of Science & Technology for Forest Products and Processes      

Sustainable synthesis of vaterite using a forest nano-product (Link)

A. Sheikhi and T.G.M. van de Ven. 5:62. 2016.

(15) Journal of Visualized Experiments       

Highly stable, functional hairy nanoparticles and biopolymers from wood fibers: Towards sustainable nanotechnology (Link)

A. Sheikhi, H. Yang, Md. N. Alam, T.G.M. van de Ven. 113:e54133. 2016.

(14) Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology       

Macromolecule based platform for developing tailor made formulations for scale inhibition (Link)

A. Sheikhi,§ N. Li,§ T.G.M. van de Ven, and A. Kakkar. 2:71. 2016.

(13) ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering        

Sequence based process modeling of fluidized bed biomass gasification (Link)

H. Asadi-Saghandi, A. Sheikhi,* R. Sotudeh-Gharebagh*. 3:2640. 2015.

(12) ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces         

Copper removal using electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline celluloses (Link)

A. Sheikhi S. Safari,§ H. Yang, T.G.M. van de Ven. 7:11301. 2015.

(11) ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces         

On the flow direction effect in sequential modular simulations: a case study on fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (Link)

H.H. Shahrivar, A. Sheikhi,* R. Sotudeh-Gharebagh*. 40:2552. 2015.

(10) Journal of Colloid and Interface Science          

Electroacoustic characterization of conventional and electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline celluloses (Link)

S. Safari,§ A. Sheikhi,§ T.G.M. van de Ven. 432:151. 2014.

(9) International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow

Experimental investigation on the hydrodynamics of a gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed using vibration signature and pressure fluctuation analyses (Link)

A. Sheikhi, R. Sotudeh-Gharebagh, N. Mostoufi, R. Zarghami. 42:190. 2013.

(8) International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow

Frequency-based characterization of liquid-solid fluidized bed hydrodynamics using the analysis of vibration signature and pressure fluctuations (Link)

A. Sheikhi, R. Sotudeh-Gharebagh, N. Mostoufi, R. Zarghami. 235:787. 2013.

(7) Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 

Understanding bubble hydrodynamics in bubble columns (Link)

A. Sheikhi, R. Sotudeh-Gharebagh, N. Mostoufi, R. Zarghami, M. Alfi. 45:63. 2013.

(6) Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering  

Hydrodynamic characterization of liquid-solid two-phase fluidized beds: vibration signature and pressure fluctuation analyses (Link)

A. Sheikhi, R. Sotudeh-Gharebagh, M. Alfi, N. Mostoufi, R. Zarghami. 90:1646. 2012.

(5) Energy & Fuels 

Sequential modeling of coal volatile combustion in fluidized bed reactors (Link)

A. Eslami,§ A.H. Sohi,§ A. Sheikhi,§ R. Sotudeh-Gharebagh. 26:5199. 2012.

(4) Energy & Fuels 

Sequential-based process modeling of natural gas combustion in a fluidized bed reactor (Link)

A.H. Sohi,§ A. Eslami,§ A. Sheikhi,§ R. Sotudeh-Gharebagh. 26:2058. 2012.

(3) Biochemical Engineering Journal 

Sequential modular simulation of ethanol production in a three-phase fluidized bed bioreactor (Link)

A. Sheikhi, R. Sotudeh-Gharebagh, A. Eslami, A.H. Sohi. 63:95. 2012.

(2) Chemical Engineering Science 

Hydrodynamics and mass transfer performance of rotating sieve disc contactors used for reversed micellar extraction of protein (Link)

S. Soltanali, Y. Ziaie-Shirkolaee, G. Amoabediny, H. Rashedi, A. Sheikhi, P. Chamanrokh. 64:2301. 2009.

(1) Iranian Journal of Biotechnology  

Influence of fungal enzyme pre-treatment on totally chlorine-free (TCF) bleaching of dimethyl formamide bagasse pulp (Link)

A. Sheikhi, G. Amoabediny, H. Rashedi, Y. Ziaie-Shirkolaee, S. Soltanali, Z. Shams-Haghani. 6:144. 2008.